Sep 20, 2016



 We really do not require this consensus of Climate Scientists. We can determine the truth for ourselves. We too can look at the data - the massive store of measurements of CO2 in our atmosphere and of rising temperatures across the globe. 

Charles Keeling put his CO2 measurement devices on Mauna Loa in Hawaii around 1958, We have had access to this record of CO2 in our atmosphere in the Keeling Curve and many other measurement sites that have duplicated this result across the planet. 

KEELING CO2 LEVELS 1958 - 2016

This information is quite easy to understand. The number 401.10 is the current parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere at the Mauna Loa Observatory. Since 1958 the amount of CO2 has steadily increased from 315 to 401ppm. Everything you could possibly care to understand about this measurement is available here on THE KEELING CURVE WEBSITE including links to a number of additional measurement sites around the world that verify this is not an anomaly. 

Even the LIAR DENIERS cannot attack these measurements. Instead, they try to claim the CO2 comes from volcanoes or other natural sources. 
But this is what they fail to comprehend. We are smarter than they think. We understand there is a natural carbon cycle that has been operating on Earth for millennia . We understand that some CO2 is produced by natural processes like breathing. We know it enters the atmosphere and is absorbed by the ocean, released into the air again and absorbed in our forests where green leafy trees use photosynthesis to make CO2 into oxygen. 
How do our Climate Scientists know about the natural balance of the carbon cycle in the past? We know because the ice is a massive storage facility for ancient data on the atmosphere. 

We know the oceans and forests are carbon dioxide sinks that store CO2, first on the ocean surface until currents carry it into the ocean depths. This process was in balance for millennia. We know this because our scientists have learned that they can drill into the ice in glaciers on the high mountains and in Greenland or Antarctica and recover a record of CO2 that now goes back 800,000 years. This record now covers hundreds of core drilling sites and thousands of samples and clearly shows we have not approached 401ppm over all that time. 

In order to better understand and communicate in conflicts with deniers and doubters on Climate Change, I entered the DENIAL 101X course on EDX. This course is nearing completion but you can get involved and gain the information on your own time as I have since last week. The course consists of short video ‘lectures’ of 6 minutes average, with pdf ‘handouts’. This is very well done and beautifully organized. I encourage each of you to at least visit the site and perhaps enroll for the Climate Science course that begins on Nov 1, 2016.

This video by Dr. Lonnie Thompson from Ohio State University is very entertaining and informative. Dr. Thompson invented the process that allows scientists to use a solar powered drill to take core samples in the high mountains of the Andes, Alps,Himalayas and even Kilimanjaro and New Guinea. This involves drilling at 20,000 feet in areas inaccessible to even helicopters. Scientists use yaks to pack out the cores from the high elevations. 


The way we know that CO2 is now out of balance with the natural carbon cycle comes from the measurements of CO2 at places like Mauna Loa and from analysis of the ice cores drilled by scientists like Dr. Thompson on high mountain glaciers and by many other Climate Scientists who have drilled deep in Greenland and Antarctica. Scientists depend on a wide array of cores from all across the planet to confirm that results are not isolated phenomena. The cores are shared with scientists in many different countries at many different institutions. The analysis of the trapped air in facilities in many countries ensures results are not 'doctored'.

You have to be absurdly lost in some vast conspiracy of an international cartel of science frauds attempting to frighten mankind with their findings. Simply listening to Climate Scientist speak on the news or in public should be enough to convince sensible people of their sincerity and lack of guile. They are not trained in communication skills and they often bury the impact while putting us to sleep.  When up against a highly paid public relations expert from a fossil fuel industry funded “think tank” they come across as inept.  Their tendency is to be detailed and very conservative with their pronouncements. If they think the data shows the world ending in 6 months they could put us to sleep with that news. but they would likely err on the side of minimizing the disaster potential in most cases. 
What they do excel at doing is collecting incredible amounts of data to confirm their results at not insubstantial personal risk for less than spectacular pay.  Dr. Thompson like most full-time professors at State Universities in the Big 10 makes in the neighborhood of $150. Research grants  that afford us the opportunity to benefit from his research add something to this amount but these grants are not gold mines or stock options, and the costs of these expeditions are very substantial. The money made is nothing compared to the millions spent by Exxon and the Koch Brothers to keep the public confused about the science that proves we need them to cease and desist from drilling, mining coal, and fracking. Exxon and Koch Industries never pay the cost of using our atmosphere as their dumping ground. 


These cores are stratified by visible layers that show the ages of the layers much like the rings of old trees. Trapped in these layers are air bubbles that are a record of the atmosphere at the time the ice froze. That is what gives the scientists a record of CO2 levels going back millennia. We can then see the change in CO2 concentrations for all those centuries. 

So we know to a certainty that CO2 at the current concentration has not been on Earth during the past 800,000 years from the record stored in the ice. We have the technology to see the isotopes in the molecules of CO2 so we can determine the sources of the CO2 that is tested. 

Now you have the basics of how we know CO2 is at the highest level ever recorded in the past 800,000 years. The way those measurements are obtained and wide array of sites where the measurements are taken. Scientists can tell the differences between sources of CO2 due to the masses of the isotopes and thus measure the CO2 from fossil fuels alone. 

There are three isotopes of carbon atoms - the chemical difference between them is that they have slightly different masses. The heaviest is carbon-14 (which, in the scientific world, is written as 14C), followed by carbon-13 (13C), and the lightest, most common carbon-12 (12C). Different carbon reservoirs “like” different isotopes, so the relative proportion of the three isotopes is different in each reservoir - each has its own, identifying,isotopic fingerprint. By examining the isotopic mixture in the atmosphere, and knowing the isotopic fingerprint of each reservoir, atmospheric scientists can determine how much carbon dioxide is coming and going from each reservoir, making isotopes an ideal tracer of sources and sinks of carbon dioxide.

Once we have determined the amount of CO2 and it's source, and we know the data shows almost identical atmospheric patterns all across the planet we have to understand the relationship of this increase in CO2 and warming. 

When we see this type of graph or information - where does the data originate?
This acceleration of the warming trend should concern us all. 
There is a clear tendency for Climate Scientists to be very conservative in their pronouncements. So we see these conservative estimates indicate we have until the end of the century before the sea level rise begins to flood coastal cities. But their predictions are exceeded by these observations. 

First we need to know that temperature measurements are made at some 6,000 stations across the globe. See them here divided into Red and Blue dots.

This division is made to ensure accuracy by allowing comparison of the data provided. The red and blue stations in proximity show data provided by each group closely conform. 

Once the two separate graphs have been established they are overlayed to determine the accuracy of the measurement 

As you can see the minor differences in the two graphs do not alter the strength of the warming that is being observed. 

So when a Liar Denier attempts to discredit the data that confirms the warming reported by the climate scientists is inaccurate due to poor instrumentation or data manipulation, it is a relatively easy matter to refute these specious claims with the undeniable evidence. 

These thousands of worldwide measurements are taken by different nationalities scientists. These measurements are all part of a public record that anyone can access and even manipulate. One of the tools used to study the temperature changing is available here:

With this tool you can select any set of stations you wish. Even the random subsets of fractions like 1/2 or 1/50 of stations or a single station from any of the available dots.

Once you select the station, random subset of stations, rural or urban stations etc. you click the Calculate button and get this: 

On the bottom line you select a time period. This particular selection is of1508 rural stations, and the trend line is from 1946 thru 2016. Anyone can use this tool and any of the measurements from any of the thousands of measurement stations.  

But the temperature measurements are not restricted to these land-based instruments. Satellites from NASA and other national space and science agencies record measurements of atmospheric temperature and add those trend lines to the data stream. 

The Liar Deniers claim these measurements are inaccurate since they do not account for urban heating. That claim is also patently false:
As we can clearly see in a graph of the Climate Scientists temperature increase or Global Warming, many of the areas in red and dark red where temperature has increased most dramatically are clearly rural. As areas have urbanized over the decades the Climate Scientist have adjusted the measurements to allow for urban heating caused by elimination of green plant or water and the increase of asphalt and air conditioning heat. 

Climate Scientists are interested in accuracy of data. Those Liar Deniers who claim these scientists are somehow driven by an agenda to cook their data in order to keep receiving grant and research money are attributing to science what is obvious with their fossil fuel industry backers. It's Exxon and the Koch Brothers who have the agenda to keep their profits rolling in from fossil fuels. 

Ok so we can now determine for ourselves that CO2 from burning fossil fuels is rising along with the temperature but how do we know this is not from increased solar activity? Climate Scientists like detectives find the fingerprints.

Way back in 1865 Scientist John Tyndall predicted greenhouse gasses would have the effect of causing more warming in Winter and at night. This is common sense. Increased warming from the sun or sunspots would occur when the sun is brightest during the day and in Summer. But at night or in the winter when the sun has the least impact, any warming that is measured must come from the greenhouse effect. Like being under a blanket at night in the winter the Earth remains warmer with a bigger blanket. 

And that is exactly what Climate Scientist have measured and recorded:

There is no doubt that the vast majority of 90 to 100% of Climate Scientists agree on AGW. But that agreement doesn't have to be your only reason for knowing that CO2 is increasing from the burning of fossil fuels and that the temperature is rising across the planet. Anyone can access that data and see it for themselves. 
So now that you know:
  • 1) CO2 has risen from 315ppm in 1958 to 401ppm today
  • 2) That CO2 has the isotopes that identify it with the burning of fossil fuels
  • 3) Mankind is burning those fossil fuels
  • 4) The temperature is rising dramatically 
  • 5) The fingerprints of that temperature rise track with the rise in greenhouse gasses 
What do you conclude?

Liar Deniers would have you believe in some vast conspiracy among dedicated people doing scientific research at universities all across the world. These professors and their students are joined by over 200 recognized scientific organizations and a large number of government funded research groups. This “hoax” or conspiracy would involve all the different nations scientists and the competing university researchers and professors somehow doctoring the data at thousands of global temperature monitoring sites and controlling the flow of open source data from dozens of satellites. All of these records are available to the public. There is no hidden agenda. 
Use your own Occam’s Razor. What is more likely:
1) That this diverse multi-national group of Climate Scientists across the globe has conspired to manufacture a non-existent threat to the planet in order to keep a research grant that certainly does not make them wealthy. 
2) Greedy individuals with little or no scientific background, paid significant sums by the wealthiest and most powerful industry in history would do the job their fossil fuel masters pay them to do and manufacture lies in order to cast doubt on Climate Science and the Climate Scientist themselves?
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