LIAR DENIERS THINK YOU ARE TOO STUPID TO SEE WHAT THEY DO
We really do not require this consensus of Climate Scientists. We can determine the truth for ourselves. We too can look at the data - the massive store of measurements of CO2 in our atmosphere and of rising temperatures across the globe.
Charles Keeling put his CO2 measurement devices on Mauna Loa in Hawaii around 1958, We have had access to this record of CO2 in our atmosphere in the Keeling Curve and many other measurement sites that have duplicated this result across the planet.
|KEELING CO2 LEVELS 1958 - 2016|
This information is quite easy to understand. The number 401.10 is the current parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere at the Mauna Loa Observatory. Since 1958 the amount of CO2 has steadily increased from 315 to 401ppm. Everything you could possibly care to understand about this measurement is available here on THE KEELING CURVE WEBSITE including links to a number of additional measurement sites around the world that verify this is not an anomaly.
We know the oceans and forests are carbon dioxide sinks that store CO2, first on the ocean surface until currents carry it into the ocean depths. This process was in balance for millennia. We know this because our scientists have learned that they can drill into the ice in glaciers on the high mountains and in Greenland or Antarctica and recover a record of CO2 that now goes back 800,000 years. This record now covers hundreds of core drilling sites and thousands of samples and clearly shows we have not approached 401ppm over all that time.
In order to better understand and communicate in conflicts with deniers and doubters on Climate Change, I entered the DENIAL 101X course on EDX. This course is nearing completion but you can get involved and gain the information on your own time as I have since last week. The course consists of short video ‘lectures’ of 6 minutes average, with pdf ‘handouts’. This is very well done and beautifully organized. I encourage each of you to at least visit the site and perhaps enroll for the Climate Science course that begins on Nov 1, 2016.
This video by Dr. Lonnie Thompson from Ohio State University is very entertaining and informative. Dr. Thompson invented the process that allows scientists to use a solar powered drill to take core samples in the high mountains of the Andes, Alps,Himalayas and even Kilimanjaro and New Guinea. This involves drilling at 20,000 feet in areas inaccessible to even helicopters. Scientists use yaks to pack out the cores from the high elevations.
The way we know that CO2 is now out of balance with the natural carbon cycle comes from the measurements of CO2 at places like Mauna Loa and from analysis of the ice cores drilled by scientists like Dr. Thompson on high mountain glaciers and by many other Climate Scientists who have drilled deep in Greenland and Antarctica. Scientists depend on a wide array of cores from all across the planet to confirm that results are not isolated phenomena. The cores are shared with scientists in many different countries at many different institutions. The analysis of the trapped air in facilities in many countries ensures results are not 'doctored'.
CONTINUE BELOW THE FOLD
|ICE CORE DRILL SITES AROUND THE WORLD|
These cores are stratified by visible layers that show the ages of the layers much like the rings of old trees. Trapped in these layers are air bubbles that are a record of the atmosphere at the time the ice froze. That is what gives the scientists a record of CO2 levels going back millennia. We can then see the change in CO2 concentrations for all those centuries.
So we know to a certainty that CO2 at the current concentration has not been on Earth during the past 800,000 years from the record stored in the ice. We have the technology to see the isotopes in the molecules of CO2 so we can determine the sources of the CO2 that is tested.
Now you have the basics of how we know CO2 is at the highest level ever recorded in the past 800,000 years. The way those measurements are obtained and wide array of sites where the measurements are taken. Scientists can tell the differences between sources of CO2 due to the masses of the isotopes and thus measure the CO2 from fossil fuels alone.
There are three of carbon atoms - the chemical difference between them is that they have slightly different masses. The heaviest is carbon-14 (which, in the scientific world, is written as C), followed by carbon-13 (C), and the lightest, most common carbon-12 (C). Different carbon reservoirs “like” different isotopes, so the relative proportion of the three isotopes is different in each reservoir - each has its own, identifying,. By examining the isotopic mixture in the atmosphere, and knowing the isotopic fingerprint of each reservoir, atmospheric scientists can determine how much carbon dioxide is coming and going from each reservoir, making isotopes an ideal of sources and sinks of carbon dioxide.
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS KEY TO PROVING GLOBAL WARMING
Once we have determined the amount of CO2 and it's source, and we know the data shows almost identical atmospheric patterns all across the planet we have to understand the relationship of this increase in CO2 and warming.
When we see this type of graph or information - where does the data originate?
|ACCELERATION IS EVIDENT IN THE GAP BETWEEN 2015 AND EARLIER YEARS|
THE GAP BETWEEN 2015 AND 2016 IS EVEN GREATER
This acceleration of the warming trend should concern us all.
There is a clear tendency for Climate Scientists to be very conservative in their pronouncements. So we see these conservative estimates indicate we have until the end of the century before the sea level rise begins to flood coastal cities. But their predictions are exceeded by these observations.
This division is made to ensure accuracy by allowing comparison of the data provided. The red and blue stations in proximity show data provided by each group closely conform.
As we can clearly see in a graph of the Climate Scientists temperature increase or Global Warming, many of the areas in red and dark red where temperature has increased most dramatically are clearly rural. As areas have urbanized over the decades the Climate Scientist have adjusted the measurements to allow for urban heating caused by elimination of green plant or water and the increase of asphalt and air conditioning heat.
Climate Scientists are interested in accuracy of data. Those Liar Deniers who claim these scientists are somehow driven by an agenda to cook their data in order to keep receiving grant and research money are attributing to science what is obvious with their fossil fuel industry backers. It's Exxon and the Koch Brothers who have the agenda to keep their profits rolling in from fossil fuels.
Ok so we can now determine for ourselves that CO2 from burning fossil fuels is rising along with the temperature but how do we know this is not from increased solar activity? Climate Scientists like detectives find the fingerprints.
Way back in 1865 Scientist John Tyndall predicted greenhouse gasses would have the effect of causing more warming in Winter and at night. This is common sense. Increased warming from the sun or sunspots would occur when the sun is brightest during the day and in Summer. But at night or in the winter when the sun has the least impact, any warming that is measured must come from the greenhouse effect. Like being under a blanket at night in the winter the Earth remains warmer with a bigger blanket.
And that is exactly what Climate Scientist have measured and recorded: